#### Spoken English Topic

Please study the following vocabulary or information for this week's lesson. Looking forward to talking to you!

Some of this information is from Wikipedia

#### 数学和数字 Math and Numbers - I

VocabularyDescription
add
angle
answer
area
average
billion 十亿
circle
counting
cube
curve
divide
division
divisor
dozen
eight
eighteen
eighty
eleven
equal
equation
even
factor
fifteen
fifty
five
focus
fourteen
forty
four
greater
greater than
half
hundred
less
less than
line
linear
math
mean average
million
minus
multiply
negative
nine
nineteen
ninety
number
percent
plane
plus
point
quarter One of four equal parts.
set a collection of well defined and distinct objects
seven
seventeen
seventy
six
sixteen
sixty
sphere
square
subtract
sum
symbol
ten
tenth
thirteen
thirty
thousand
thousandth
three
times
triangle
trillion
twelve
twenty
two
volume
zero

#### 数学和数字 Math and Numbers - II

VocabularyDescription
addend 加数
addition
arithmetic
axis
binary
calculate
circumference perimeter
compass round, circle, compass, ring
cone pyramid
carry 进位
coordinates
cylinder
decimal
degree
denominator 分母
diameter
difference
ellipse oval
equilateral
exponent index
expression
formula
fraction fractional number
geometry
graph
hundredth
identity
imaginary hypothetical, fictitious
inequality
integer
intersection crossing
mathematician
mathematics
median The "median" is the "middle" value in the list of numbers.
modular
multiplicand
nano-
numeral
numerical
parallel In geometry, parallel lines are lines in a plane which do not meet; that is, two lines in a plane that do not intersect or touch each other at any point are said to be parallel. By extension, a line and a plane, or two planes, in three-dimensional Euclidean space that do not share a point are said to be parallel.
perimeter The perimeter of a polygon is the distance around the outside of the polygon.
pi 3.14159265359
plot Plot is a narrative (and, traditionally, literary) term defined as the events that make up a story, particularly: as they relate to one another in a pattern or in a sequence; as they relate to each other through cause and effect; how the reader views the story; or simply by coincidence.
polygon a plane figure that is bounded by a finite chain of straight line segments closing in a loop to form a closed chain or circuit.
power
prime number
product a quantity obtained by multiplying quantities together, or from an analogous algebraic operation.
proof
protractor A protractor is a measuring instrument, typically made of transparent plastic or glass, for measuring angles. Most protractors measure angles in degrees (°).
pyramid a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or any polygon shape, meaning that a pyramid has at least three outer triangular surfaces (at least four faces including the base). The square pyramid, with square base and four triangular outer surfaces, is a common version.
quotient In mathematics, a quotient (from Latin: quotiens "how many times", pronounced ˈkwoʊʃənt) is the result of division. For example, when dividing 6 by 3, the quotient is 2, while 6 is called the dividend, and 3 the divisor.
radian The radian is the standard unit of angular measure, used in many areas of mathematics. An angle's measurement in radians is numerically equal to the length of a corresponding arc of a unit circle; one radian is just under 57.3 degrees (when the arc length is equal to the radius).
rational number In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction p/q of two integers, p and q, with the denominator q not equal to zero. Since q may be equal to 1, every integer is a rational number.
radius In classical geometry, the radius of a circle or sphere is the length of a line segment from its center to its perimeter.
real number The real numbers include all the rational numbers, such as the integer −5 and the fraction 4/3, and all the irrational numbers such as √2 (1.41421356…, the square root of two, an irrational algebraic number) and π (3.14159265…, a transcendental number).
rectangle
remainder In mathematics, the remainder is the amount "left over" after performing some computation. In arithmetic, the remainder is the integer "left over" after dividing one integer by another to produce an integer quotient (integer division).
right angle In geometry and trigonometry, a right angle is an angle that bisects the angle formed by two halves of a straight line. More precisely, if a ray is placed so that its endpoint is on a line and the adjacent angles are equal, then they are right angles.
rounded having a smooth, curved surface. well developed in all aspects; complete and balanced.
series a group or a number of related or similar things, events, etc.
sine in mathematics, is a trigonometric function of an angle. The sine of an angle is defined in the context of a right triangle: for the specified angle, it is the ratio of the length of the side that is opposite that angle to the length of the longest side of the triangle (i.e., the hypotenuse).
slope the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the direction and the steepness of the line. Slope is often denoted by the letter m. The direction of a line is either increasing, decreasing, horizontal or vertical. A line is increasing if it goes up from left to right.
solve
square root
symmetry the quality of being made up of exactly similar parts facing each other or around an axis.
tangent In geometry, the tangent line (or simply tangent) to a plane curve at a given point is the straight line that "just touches" the curve at that point. Leibniz defined it as the line through a pair of infinitely close points on the curve.
trapezoid A trapezoid is a 4-sided flat shape with straight sides that has a pair of opposite sides parallel. Called an Isosceles trapezoid when the sides that aren't parallel are equal in length and both angles coming from a parallel side are equal.
union in mathematics, a fundamental operation and relation of sets
unit
variable
vertex In geometry, a vertex (plural vertices) is a special kind of point that describes the corners or intersections of geometric shapes.
whole number
x-axis
x-coordinate
y-axis
y-coordinate

#### 数学和数字 Math and Numbers - III

VocabularyDescription
cardinal fundamental, basic, essential, prime, cardinal, key
cosine
factorial
hyperbola 双曲线
hypotenuse bevel edge
inverse opposite
irrational number
isosceles An isosceles triangle is a triangle with (at least) two equal sides
null zero, null, nil, nothing, naught, invalid, null, to no avail, of no avail
parabola The parabola is the curve formed from all the points (x, y) that are equidistant from the directrix and the focus. The line perpendicular to the directrix and passing through the focus (that is, the line that splits the parabola up the middle) is called the "axis of symmetry"
parallelogram In Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a (non self-intersecting) quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides. The opposite or facing sides of a parallelogram are of equal length and the opposite angles of a parallelogram are of equal measure.
perpendicular In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle (90 degrees). The property extends to other related geometric objects. A line is said to be perpendicular to another line if the two lines intersect at a right angle.
polyhedron In geometry, a polyhedron is simply a three-dimensional solid which consists of a collection of polygons, usually joined at their edges. The word derives from the Greek poly (many) plus the Indo-European hedron (seat).
polynomial an expression of more than two algebraic terms, especially the sum of several terms that contain different powers of the same variable(s). an expression consisting of variables (or indeterminates) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents.
quadratic In mathematics, the term quadratic describes something that pertains to squares, to the operation of squaring, to terms of the second degree, or equations or formulas that involve such terms. Quadratus is Latin for square.
quadrilateral A quadrilateral is a four-sided polygon with four angles. There are many kinds of quadrilaterals. The five most common types are the parallelogram, the rectangle, the square, the trapezoid, and the rhombus.
scientific notation
torus In geometry, a torus (plural tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle. If the axis of revolution does not touch the circle, the surface has a ring shape and is called a ring torus or simply torus if the ring shape is implicit.
Venn diagram a diagram representing mathematical or logical sets pictorially as circles or closed curves within an enclosing rectangle (the universal set), common elements of the sets being represented by the areas of overlap among the circles.

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